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  1. AVL Simulation Suite 2022 R2 | 9.2 Gb Product:AVL Simulation Suite Version:2022 R2 Build 248 Supported Architectures:x64 Website Home Page :www.avl.com Languages Supported:english System Requirements:Windows * Size:9.2 Gb The software developer Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) is pleased to announce the availability of AVL Simulation Suite 2022 R2 is a comprehensive solution that covers all aspects of powertrain concept, the e-motor, e-axle, power electronics, fuel cell, battery and control functions layout and integration. Release 2022 R2 We are pleased to announce the latest software releases for the following solutions: Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution Analyze Batteries Electrochemically Release 2022 R2 of AVL CRUISE M makes the electrochemical simulation of batteries easier and more accurate. For this purpose, two major enhancements have been made. CRUISE M now provides you with a tailored EIS Parameterization Wizard that simplifies the process of finding the electrode diffusion coefficient based on measured data. The "find the equivalent circuit" option starts the automatic search for the best fitting approach. Figure 1: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy wizard (EISW) Double layer effects are now considered. The double layer induces an electrical field that is capable of storing and releasing charge in much less time than the intercalation process of lithium ions, like in a capacitor. Such high frequency responses are covered as part of the existing electrochemical battery at four different positions. First, at the electrode-electrolyte interface of the cathode and anode, and second, at the interfaces between the current collector plates and the adjacent electrodes. Figure 2: Double layer model concept and simulation results Cylindrical Battery Module Now Available The module "component cylindrical cell" is the extension to the prismatic and pouch cells that are already available. It allows you to define the cell arrangement, the housing configuration, the cooling type, the electrical connection pattern and all types of connection ports, as well at the measuring points for interaction with other components. The cells are modeled in 2D featuring different temperatures in radial direction and across their height. It supports both equivalent circuit models and Batemo cell models. Figure 3: Battery module - cylindrical - parameterization workflow Solution: Mechanical stresses on battery In addition to the thermal and electrical states in batteries, it is important to consider their mechanical behavior during operation. We take this into account with two functional enhancements. Tilting of pouch cells in battery modules Pouch cells are usually connected to the bottom of the enclosure via a thermal paste. The fact that cells are fixed at the bottom and the other sides are more flexible to move also impacts the expansion/contraction of cells and the mechanical stresses that build up. This version of CRUISE M offers the possibility to model cell tilting. Figure 4: Battery module: Tilting of battery cells A new interface is available should you need to integrate custom model extension into existing CRUISE M models. The interface allows you to integrate your user-defined sub model without having to sacrifice the comfort of the overall solution. The Battery-Module has been extended by a dedicated interface for mechanical models. This allows the custom models to describe all mechanical aspects of the module's housing that react to expanding and contracting battery cells. The model needs to be given as FMU complying to a dedicated interface specification defined by CRUISE M. Figure 5: Battery module: Integration concept for custom mechanical models Solution: Battery Safety Analysis Easy simulation of battery thermal behavior in the event of thermal runaway. Another new feature of the Battery Module component allows you to study the propagation of heat through a module assembled from cells, cooling plates, and pressure pads. The input is the heat released by the cell during thermal runaway. You can determine this information using abuse tests on a single cell and the Compose app. Together with the actual cell energy and a trigger temperature, this input is sufficient to model the thermal history of a single cell. You can view the local temperature rise in a cell and the spillover to neighboring cells, as well as the propagation across the entire module. Figure 6: 3D Battery module: Temperature distribution through structure Solid Particle Release: AVL FIRE M is now able to simulate the exertion of solid particles during battery cell venting. The particles are modelled using a Lagrangian description of particle motion. Coupling of energy, momentum and turbulence exchange with the surrounding gas phase is taken into account. Specific sub models are used for the drag law and evaporation. Methodology development has shown that consideration of these particles can provide additional insights into the occurring risks posed by particles, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Solid particles during the battery cell venting event. Particles melt the golden, meltable parts and pose an additional threat due their ignition energy . Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution Introduction of AVL EXCITE M With Release 2022 R2 of AVL EXCITE M, we are launching a new generation of our multi-body dynamics software solution for powertrain analysis. The first step was the migration of EXCITE for e-axle. By integrating a new IC motor assembly, you can now simulate both e-drive units and hybrid configurations with IC engines. Improved load and signal processing capabilities are available for more accurate simulation of transient operating conditions. In a second step, EXCITE Power Unit will also be migrated to enable the modeling, simulation and evaluation of structural dynamics, NVH and durability of any powertrain configuration in a single interface. IC-Engine Assembly EXCITE M supports the modelling of common configurations of internal combustion engines by providing an IC-Engine Assembly element. Figure 1: IC-engine assembly of an I4 engine The element allows you to specify: - IC-engine configuration (such as number of cylinders, their arrangement, several basic dimensions, and firing order) - Model fidelity (such as usage of axial bearings, connection representation to be used for piston/liner guides and enabled degrees of freedom for certain components) - Global geometry (such as bore and bearing dimensions) and cylinder pressure load Based on the above inputs, the basic IC-engine model is automatically built. All parts of the model (bodies and joints, partly structured in sub-assemblies) are configured. Once the automatic setup of the base model is complete, the user can adjust certain parts or components to fit them to specific modeling and/or geometrical requirements. This could be related to the exact positioning of a pulley or flywheel on a crankshaft, for instance, or concern details regarding the node distribution used to connect the parts of the system. Figure 2: Adjustment of components on a crankshaft In addition, the IC-Engine Assembly generates all sub-parts (link location types and positions) to enable the easy search of connection nodes or node sets. The condensation of FE models for flexible bodies is supported by the Component Modeler and enables the easy application of all used joints to the corresponding nodes on the connected bodies. Figure 3: Component modeler view for a crankshaft model Working with existing condensed body representations is also possible. In this case, you can explicitly correlate the nodes and node sets in the FE model to the joint created in the IC-Engine Assembly. This step is supported by the select and search capabilities in the GUI. Cylinder Pressure Load A special cylinder pressure load definition has been introduced together with the IC-Engine Assembly to support the modeling of systems for transient dynamic analysis. Figure 4: Cylinder pressure specification Cylinder pressure can be specified in a map as crank-angle-related pressure dependent on engine speed and throttle signal. The cylinder pressure is specified for a discrete number of operating points (engine speed or throttle position combinations). The reference quantities for the cylinder pressure load evaluation are defined with the load properties. Sensor elements can be used to determine the actual state of these quantities during the simulation. - Speed reference can be set to a user-defined constant value or by using a sensor element to pick up an angular velocity of a body or a relative velocity between two bodies. - Crank angle reference can use the same reference motion for all cylinders, or you can select reference motions from different sensors for the individual cylinders. - Throttle demand can currently be defined by a user-defined constant value or by a table vs. time or reference angle. Figure 5: Reference quantities for cylinder pressure load assignment The correct transfer from specified cylinder pressure to appropriate load forces on the model components is defined in the Load Application panel. Two ways of load assignment are supported: - Application of loads to nodes: Here, the type of the load signal can be defined (pressure, force, moment) and the distribution of the defined load to the individually connected nodes must be specified. For standard modeling cases, all required settings are done automatically based on the given IC-Engine Assembly data. - Alternatively, the loads can be distributed to the body's connected nodes using load case vectors, prepared with the FE model of the body. Signal Network Several new elements to model simple control system functionality are provided to be able to influence and control system behavior such as cylinder pressure application (e.g. via changing the throttle position) or performing switching actions in a drive system (e.g. actuating a clutch). In addition, the possibility of integrating C-code in the form of so-called compiled functions allows basic control functions (e.g. a PI controller) to be incorporated. Co-simulation with external tools is no longer necessary. - Another innovation concerns signals and control. A first set of components is now offered to you in the graphical front-end of EXCITE M): Load Applicator and Load Item Cylinder Pressure: Facilitate load application at body nodes (like pressure, force and moment) based on the specified input-signals. Figure 6: Load applicator component to convert signals into pressure, force, moment Figure 7: Cylinder pressure load map utilizing signal input for crank angle, speed and throttle position -Elasto-Plastic Clutch Joint (EPCL) and Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB):In order to model and actuate switching elements such as friction clutches, simple synchronizer units or dog clutches, the existing joint functionality has been extended. The extension includes the joint properties clamping force, stiffness/damping. These can now be set and scaled via input signals. Figure 8: Force/moment joint (FTAB) force/moment application and scaled by table Figure 9: Elasto-plastic friction clutch (EPCL): Clutch actuation by clamping force depending on closing ratio signal -Motion Sensor:Measuring the rotary speed of a shaft/crankshaft at a specific node position relative to a housing or engine block is complex. This new component allows you to sense and process relative translational and rotational motions between the nodes of two bodies. Moreover, it provides you with basic functions for the conversion of 3D vector readings into single signals such as vector norm or scalar projection. Figure 10: Motion sensor for the measurement of relative translational/rotational quantities between body nodes -Force/Moment Sensor:The existing Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB) has been extended to perform basic force/moment measurement tasks. For each of the different FTAB options, the resulting force/moment can be accessed via an output signal provided by the joint. Figure 11: Force/moment sensor facilitated by Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB) -Function:The user can take any input and output signal of EXCITE model and use them in code that will perform a certain function in that model. Compilation of the C-code and link to EXCITE solver happens automatically and does not require any user action. This enables the user to significantly extend the functionality of EXCITE to fulfill his or her specific requirements. Figure 12: Simple speed-controller (PI) realized by a compiled function Model.CONNECT Interface It is now possible to connect EXCITE M with Model.CONNECT. This can be achieved using the new components. Any number of Model.CONNECT interfacing components can be arbitrarily added in the EXCITE M model. The Model.CONNECT components are part of the signal network in EXCITE M. This means that you have the possibility to define input and output signals for all EXCITE M quantities to be exchanged. Figure 13: Example of connecting the Model.CONNECT component to bodies/sensors Thermodynamic Coupling with Model.CONNECT To support transient operating conditions such as start/stop simulations of hybrid engines, the Model.CONNECT interface is used to enable the thermodynamic coupling of EXCITE M with Model.CONNECT. This is realized by adding a new option in the Load Item Cylinder Pressure to set the cylinder pressure source to Model.CONNECT. By selecting this option, a Model.CONNECT component is automatically inserted into the EXCITE M model and all required input and output signals are created and connected automatically. Through the co-simulation with Model.CONNECT, the cylinder pressure can be calculated by the desired thermodynamic tool (e.g. CRUISE M). The pressure data will then be sent to EXCITE M where the pressure is transformed to a force and applied to the corresponding bodies by the Load Item (see the figure below). Figure 14: Three-cylinder engine model in AVL EXCITE M receiving cylinder pressure load from a thermodynamic model in AVL CRUISE M via Model.CONNECT Co-Simulation Electric Motor Joint Extensions So far, EXCITE has offered joint types for acoustic analysis up to high frequencies of 20 kHz for all machine types. Now additional joint types and current controllers have been introduced to enable analysis of low-frequency problems in traction motor and hybrid applications. EXCITE M offers following approach for electric motor joint: - Map based (imported pre-calculated forces and moments) - available for all e-motor types with radial flux - Parameter based (linear fundamental wave model) - available for PMSM (permanent-magnet synchronous motors), EESM (externally excited synchronous motors), SCIM (squirrel-cage induction motors) and SYRM (synchronous reluctance motors) - File based - available for PMSM . Saturated fundamental wave model - files for current dependent inductances and Permanent Magnet flux linkage . MFC (Magnetic Field Computation) - files for phase-to-phase flux linkages and torque / stator tooth force / tooth axial moment .. 'Axial-Axial': Rotor axis nodes coupled to stator axis nodes (with or without consideration of rotor eccentricity) .. 'Axial-Circumferential': Rotor axis nodes coupled to stator teeth nodes (with or without consideration of rotor eccentricity) New control systems have been introduced for the EESM and SCIM that reflect state-of-the-art current control for traction applications in motor or recuperation mode. Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution Introducing the next generation of AVL EXCITE M With Release 2022 R2 of AVL EXCITE M, we are launching a new generation of our multi-body dynamics software solution for powertrain analysis. The first step was the migration of EXCITE for e-axle. By integrating a new IC motor assembly, you can now simulate both e-drive units and hybrid configurations with IC engines. Improved load and signal processing capabilities are available for more accurate simulation of transient operating conditions. In a second step, EXCITE Power Unit will also be migrated to enable the modeling, simulation and evaluation of structural dynamics, NVH and durability of any powertrain configuration in a single interface. Frequency Domain Solution (FDS) for Transmission Systems For application scenarios such as standard gearbox-NVH, optimization/DoE tasks and others EXCITE M offers you a faster solution: the new frequency domain solution (FDS). You can use FDS as an alternative to the well-known time domain solution (TDS) or as a supplement. The relevant sources for periodic excitation of e-axles are gear excitation forces. Analytical tooth contact analysis (TCA) is used to calculate these gear excitation forces. Figure 1: Analytical tooth contact analysis in gear joint's focus view The solution provides results for all nodal body motion quantities (i.e., displacements / velocities / accelerations) over the analyzed frequencies. Figure 2: Body nodal angular velocity - comparison between FDS and TDS To display the results in other coordinate systems, the synthesis of the results in the angle/time domain is supported. Figure 3: Result synthesis - comparison between FDS and TDS In addition to chart-based representations, you now have the option to animate the 3D FDS results in two different ways: - By body motion at single frequencies (including data recovery of nodal quantities) - By synthesizing body results that represent the combination of the single frequencies to a time and angle equivalent signal Figure 4: Animation of synthetized frequency domain body results in AVL IMPRESS M Signal Network Several new elements to model simple control system functionality are provided to be able to influence and control system behavior such as cylinder pressure application (e.g. via changing the throttle position) or performing switching actions in a drive system (e.g. actuating a clutch). In addition, the possibility of integrating C-code in the form of so-called compiled functions allows basic control functions (e.g. a PI controller) to be incorporated. Co-simulation with external tools is no longer necessary. - Another innovation concerns signals and control. A first set of components is now offered to you in the graphical front-end of EXCITE M): Load Applicator and Load Item Cylinder Pressure: Facilitate load application at body nodes (like pressure, force and moment) based on the specified input-signals. Figure 5: Load applicator component to convert signals into pressure, force, moment Figure 6: Cylinder pressure load map utilizing signal input for crank angle, speed and throttle position -Elasto-Plastic Clutch Joint (EPCL) and Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB):In order to model and actuate switching elements such as friction clutches, simple synchronizer units or dog clutches, the existing joint functionality has been extended. The extension includes the joint properties clamping force, stiffness/damping. These can now be set and scaled via input signals. Figure 7: Force/moment joint (FTAB) force/moment application and scaled by table Figure 8: Elasto-plastic friction clutch (EPCL): Clutch actuation by clamping force depending on closing ratio signal -Motion Sensor:Measuring the rotary speed of a shaft/crankshaft at a specific node position relative to a housing or engine block is complex. This new component allows you to sense and process relative translational and rotational motions between the nodes of two bodies. Moreover, it provides you with basic functions for the conversion of 3D vector readings into single signals such as vector norm or scalar projection. Figure 9: Motion sensor for the measurement of relative translational/rotational quantities between body nodes -Force/Moment Sensor:The existing Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB) has been extended to perform basic force/moment measurement tasks. For each of the different FTAB options, the resulting force/moment can be accessed via an output signal provided by the joint. Figure 10: Force/moment sensor facilitated by Table Force/Moment Joint (FTAB) -Function:The user can take any input and output signal of EXCITE model and use them in code that will perform a certain function in that model. Compilation of the C-code and link to EXCITE solver happens automatically and does not require any user action. This enables the user to significantly extend the functionality of EXCITE to fulfill his or her specific requirements. Figure 11: Simple speed-controller (PI) realized by a compiled function Model.CONNECT Interface It is now possible to connect EXCITE M with Model.CONNECT. This can be achieved using the new components. Any number of Model.CONNECT interfacing components can be arbitrarily added in the EXCITE M model. The Model.CONNECT components are part of the signal network in EXCITE M. This means that you have the possibility to define input and output signals for all EXCITE M quantities to be exchanged. Figure 12: Example of connecting the Model.CONNECT component to bodies/sensors Electric Motor Joint Extensions So far, EXCITE has offered joint types for acoustic analysis up to high frequencies of 20 kHz for all machine types. Now additional joint types and current controllers have been introduced to enable analysis of low-frequency problems in traction motor and hybrid applications. EXCITE M offers following approach for electric motor joint: - Map based (imported pre-calculated forces and moments) - available for all e-motor types with radial flux - Parameter based (linear fundamental wave model) - available for PMSM (permanent-magnet synchronous motors), EESM (externally excited synchronous motors), SCIM (squirrel-cage induction motors) and SYRM (synchronous reluctance motors) - File based - available for PMSM . Saturated fundamental wave model - files for current dependent inductances and Permanent Magnet flux linkage . MFC (Magnetic Field Computation) - files for phase-to-phase flux linkages and torque / stator tooth force / tooth axial moment .. 'Axial-Axial': Rotor axis nodes coupled to stator axis nodes (with or without consideration of rotor eccentricity) .. 'Axial-Circumferential': Rotor axis nodes coupled to stator teeth nodes (with or without consideration of rotor eccentricity) New control systems have been introduced for the EESM and SCIM that reflect state-of-the-art current control for traction applications in motor or recuperation mode. Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution The automotive industry is in a constant state of change and along with it your needs. To meet these needs, we at AVL are permanently working on the further development of our products and services to support you in fulfilling your daily tasks. The latest release of our simulation solution for development and virtual validation of automated and autonomous driving functions includes improved OpenSCENARIO standard coverage by AVL Scenario Designer™ and high-performance Simulation Platform powered by Model.CONNECT™. AVL Scenario Designer The new version of the Scenario Designer introduces support for key features of the ASAM OpenSCENARIO 1.1 standard. This is accompanied by many usability improvements for faster workflows such as the redesigned element tree, which offers new shortcut conditions and actions, along with direct access to properties. Another highlight is the batch export of many concrete scenarios based on parameter variations. Figure 1: AVL Scenario Designer Scenario Simulation Platform powered by Model.CONNECT Virtualization of testing is the only viable solution for massive scaling and to manage the resulting testing effort. We now take this one step further by providing a platform that allows you to test your ADAS/AD software stack modules separately in multiple simulation environments. By choosing the adequate model and tool fidelity based on the system under test, costs can be significantly optimized. Deploy your workloads on local machines or short-term rented virtual clusters in the cloud with our flexible job management system. You can also easily automate your integration and simulation tasks using our powerful Python API. Figure 2: Scenario simulation platform powered by Model.CONNECT Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution Don't miss the latest enhancements in the area of Virtual System Development. Dynamic E-Machine: Internal Inverter and Three-Phase Model The Dynamic E-Machine component has been extended to enable inverter behavior to be modelled. The inverter model type is described either as an average voltage source converter or as a pulse-width modulation (PWM) voltage source converter. The PWM approach offers the advantage that the component can be controlled by PWM signals. In this case, the internal inverter allows the application of an e-machine model operating on three phases. The simulation results show three-phase details including switching current and voltage in the different branches of the inverter and in the corresponding branches of the e-machine. Figure 1: Three-phase dynamic e-machine and inverter Powertrain Model Generator: Standard Reports Extension of the Powertrain Model Generator to provide automatically generated result pages. The scope of the result pages depends on the powertrain configuration selected and the results include time resolved data and scalar KPIs. The standard reports facilitate the assessment of powertrain configurations by providing a focused summary for review. Figure 2: Powertrain Model Generator (PMG) standard reports nD Map: Handling of Higher Dimensional Data When physical modeling reaches its limits or when comprehensive experimental data are available, an effective dealing with multidimensional data comes into the spotlight. To this end, CRUISE M introduces a new dedicated nD Map component. Data is stored in tabular form and is individually configurable. You can divide the columns into any number of domains and co-domains, the former requires inputs and the latter the outputs of the data evaluations. Corresponding data bus input and output ports are created automatically. This allows maps (i.e. loss as function of speed and torque) to be placed under other maps (i.e. gear and temperature), thus dividing a higher dimensional data structure (i.e. 5D) into smaller entities. Data assessment is thus made much easier. Figure 3: Multi-dimensional data handling with new nD Map Result Storage: MAT Files Support CRUISE M simulation results can be saved as ASCII files (i.e., CVS) and in binary format. Now another option has been added and results can also be saved in MAT file format. Results saved as MAT files can naturally be used for standard post-processing in AVL IMPRESS™ M. In addition, they can be loaded into MATLAB®. The result data itself is delivered in a structured form. Global metadata and the list of components are on the top level. From there, you can drill down to the level of individual signals and perform any type of result analysis. Figure 4: New result output as MAT file enables additional results assessment options Discretized Solid 3D: Thermal Propagation The propagation of heat through a 3D structure can be easily studied with the new functionality of the Discretized Solid 3D component. On the new input page, you specify the layers where heat is to be released. Despite the simplicity of the input, you can accurately view the effect of a local temperature increase on neighboring zones. In addition, you can analyze the propagation of a temperature wave through the entire solid structure. Figure 5: 3D simulation results using the internal heat source Gear Box: Dynamic Shifting Model Dynamic switching models are often the better choice for (virtual) test bed applications. A kinematic shifting model describes the shifting process exactly in time and requires sophisticated numerical treatment in the background. The dynamic shift model avoids exactly that. Therefore, we have now extended the Gear Box component and the existing kinematic-fixed shifting process with the possibility to describe the shifting process dynamically. Figure 6: Gear Box dynamic shifting model Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution At a glance: The highlights of the simulation solutions in the area of Virtual ICE Development Performance and Emissions. New Engine Segment Modeler Available in AVL FIRE M We are proud to offer you an ESE Diesel Successor in AVL FIRE™ M - very easy to use, fast to set up and execute. When developing this feature, particular attention was paid to making the setup process of the fully automated segment mesh generation as simple as possible. This significantly reduces the overall complexity of the modeling process, which in turn makes it easy for less experienced users to get started with segment CFD simulations for combustion engines. The new feature combines the proven tools AVL FAME M Engine and AVL FAME Poly. It is integrated in the AVL Simulation Desktop and is called AVL FAME M Engine S. The only mandatory inputs required to start the FAME M Engine S process are 2D curves describing the piston geometry and the crank train dimensions. Optionally, you can add a parameterized nozzle tip contour. Furthermore, blow-by and compensation volumes can be activated and will be added automatically to the mesh. FAME M Engine S uses this information to intelligently find the optimal mesh settings for the specified geometry and performs its generation, fully automatically. All required selections are automatically created with this input. The resulting meshes are polyhedral meshes (consistent with FAME M Engine and the Port Workflow) with identical node distribution on the cyclic boundaries. They contain local refinements for spray jets and similar features. All FAME M Engine S inputs can be provided as parameters, making it easier than ever to perform case studies. Figure 1: Surface data with automatically defined selections (left) and computational polyhedral-cell-grid including details such as nozzle tip and piston/liner clearance as well as perfect grid boundary layers (right). Engine Thermodynamics Highlights in AVL CRUISE M -Multi-Entry Turbine:The turbine component is extended to handle multiple entries and their impact on the turbine -Restriction / Throttle:This release of AVL CRUISE M enables you to model pressure recovery effects in the restriction and throttle components. -Engine Parameterization Wizard (EPW):The Wizard has been enhanced with new functionality und improved usability -Gas Dynamic Pipe:The robustness and efficiency of 1D gas dynamics simulations have been improved by introducing a new method to describe momentum conservation at the inlet and outlet face of a pipe. -Quasi-Propagatory Gas Dynamics Model (QPM):the Quasi-Propagatory Model (QPM) fills the gap between lumped-parameter models and distributed-parameter models, allowing the simulation of propagation effects, even in a compact, lumped parameter framework -Engineering Enhanced Diesel Cylinder:New models to describe the delivery ratio, the concentration of the residual gas and friction loses have been introduced. The parameterization wizard, which comes with the cylinder model, has been improved to simplify the parameterization of NOx emissions, delivery ratio and the friction model. Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Highlights in AVL CRUISE M -Parameter Masking:This release renders additional User Coding Interface (UCI) parameters from various filter and catalyst input pages applicable to the masking technology Highlights AVL FIRE M IC Engine Performance and Emissions -New multi-component flash boiling model:FIRE M R2022.2 offers a flash boiling model that is applicable to multi-component fuels. This is of particular interest with respect to up-coming emission regulations. Simulation engineers who enhance their models by including multi-component surrogate fuels for spray and engine combustion can now improve accuracy and predictivity. The model addresses various physical processes like fuel nozzle tip wetting, spray plume-plume interaction, spray collapse due to sudden depressurization and other processes, all of which affect engine performance, efficiency and formation of emissions. -Lagrangian spray now available for Embedded Body-Models:The models related to Lagrangian spray calculations are now able to account for static or moving embedded surfaces within the finite volume computational grid. -SCR App:This release contains a new solution app for SCR / AdBlue injection simulation as a beta version. The app allows you to define FIRE M single and multi-domain models for standard SCR simulations following the defaults that are also available in the FIRE M SCR templates. It supports both steady state pre-calculation as well as steady state and transient SCR simulation with the standard SCR thermolysis or detailed decomposition model. In addition, the spray nozzle setup, coupled thin wall model, and porosity settings can be used. Figure 2: Multi-component flash boiling: Molar density fraction of liquid and vapor phase species at 0.4 ms after start of injection Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution PEMFC and SOxC Stacks in 3D The 3D stack model has set a milestone on the system level. The three-dimensional representation allows you to study the impact of spatial non-uniformities on stack performance characteristics without having to perform extensive CFD simulations. The PEM Fuel Cell (PEMFC) models and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer (SOxC) components in CRUISE M have been extended to fully reflect the stack behavior in 3D. You can configure spatial resolution in all three dimensions: Select between straight or serpentine gas channels and choose between parallel or crossflow as the flow type. Non-uniform inlet flow conditions are handled using dedicated input maps covering the two dimensions of the cathode and anode inlet face, respectively. The thermal 3D stack model can be connected to CRUISE M's liquid and gas networks in a freely configurable way to describe any kind of stack thermoregulation. Result analysis is supported by full 3D postprocessing, by dedicated 2D cuts, and by time-based data at user-defined measurement positions. The measured CPU times for representative model sizes, i.e. number of segments used for spatial discretization, show real-time factors in the range between 0.25 (50 segments) to 3 (600 segments). Figure 1: The 3D stack model in AVL CRUISE M provides information regarding local states for individual cells in the stack relevant for performance, degradation and cold start PEM Fuel Cell Ready-to-Run Models The PEM Fuel Cell Model (PEMFC) Generator, first released in CRUISE M 2022R1, has been extended to support the parameterization of the stack model based on measurement data with the help of built-in optimization techniques. In this version of CRUISE M, not only the stack component is automatically generated but also all the infrastructure components needed to run the model. This involves a closed electrical circuit, gas networks for the anode and cathode supply, control functions to operate the plant, the measurement data used for the parameterization and tailored dashboards for online monitoring and result postprocessing. At the end of this process, a stack component model is available for further use featuring the optimized model parameters representing the reference data with highest accuracy. Having gone through the Fuel Cell Model Generator, you need to do nothing more than click "Run". Figure 2: Ready-to-run model topology displayed in the AVL CRUISE™ M Graphical User Interface Evaporator Model for SOFC Systems When operating Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems with liquid fuels such as methanol and ethanol, the fuels must be vaporized before being supplied to the SOFC stack. The evaporation and condensation of liquid species into and from a gas phase is now supported by CRUISE M. You can now choose between the five gas path components: Plenum, Quasi Dimensional Pipe, Restriction, Gas Heat Exchanger and Gas Flow Loss. Optionally, CRUISE M offers the possibility to configure a dedicated liquid film that interacts with the gas flow. The film model takes into account convective heat exchange with the gas, conductive heat transfer to the underlying wall, and the latent heat consumed/released during evaporation/condensation. All required liquid properties are provided by the property database. The film mass may additionally change due to trapping of liquid droplets from the gas stream or release of droplets due to the carry away effects. Heat transfers and evaporation/condensation follow fundamental physical considerations that are influenced by the selected liquid properties and flow conditions. It is worth mentioning that trapping and carry away effects are modeled in an empirical way. Figure 3: Schematics of evaporator component model integration into an AVL CRUISE M SOFC system model There have also been new developments related to AVL FIRE M. Platinum Band Formation Model The existing PEM Fuel Cell Degradation Models in our CFD tool AVL FIRE™ M have been extended with an additional chemical degradation effect. This release of FIRE M allows you to simulate the formation of a platinum band in the polymer electrolyte membrane. The formation of the Pt band is actually the result of an undesirable effect, namely the loss of Pt in the catalyst layer of the cathode. However, the band formation also has a positive effect. The consumption of hydrogen in the membrane by the platinum band protects the cathode catalyst layer from a larger amount of hydrogen cross-over, thus reducing the effects of parasitic reactions. In detail, the platinum ions generated in the cathode catalyst layer by dissolution of the metallic platinum diffuse into the membrane, where they react with crossover hydrogen coming from the anode to form solid platinum crystallite. This leads to the formation of a catalytic surface inside the membrane called a platinum band. The location and size of the platinum band is determined by local operating conditions such as temperature, potential or concentrations. Beside the reaction between platinum ions and hydrogen, additional reactions occur at the new catalyst surface, for example oxygen and hydrogen reduction, hydrogen peroxide reduction and Pt-dissolution. Combined with the existing catalyst layer and membrane degradation models available in FIRE M, you can analyze in spatial and temporal details the reduction of the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) that leads to a loss of fuel cell performance over time. Thanks to the unique numerical methods in FIRE M, you can efficiently simulate, for example, the impact of multiple voltage cycles of accelerated-stress-tests, covering several hundred hours of operation, on the performance evolution of the PEM fuel cell. Figure 4: Reduction of electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) in simulation and experiment during 300.000 trapezoidal voltage cycles between 0.9V and 0.6V Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor Model The Fuel Cell Module in FIRE M now offers you a model for the simulation of low-temperature PEM hydrogen compressors. In an electrochemical hydrogen compressor (EHC), hydrogen is continuously produced by supplying electrical energy in a closed system. The process runs until the desired pressure, max. up to 700 bar, is reached. Compared to conventional mechanical hydrogen compression, an EHC has a number of advantages. These include higher efficiency, noiseless operation and robustness. Design: The EHC is a combination of a PEM electrolyzer and a PEM fuel cell. Like the PEM fuel cell, hydrogen is oxidized at the anode side, producing hydrogen protons and electrons, and similar to a PEM electrolyzer, hydrogen is produced at the cathode side by recombining hydrogen protons and electrons. The materials of an EHC are basically the same as for a PEM fuel cell. You can use the new EHC model in both transient and steady run mode. You will gain insights into the mass and heat transport and electrochemical processes, allowing you to determine the impact of hardware design features, membrane and GDL material properties, and operating conditions on performance and efficiency. Figure 5: Comparison of simulated current density and pressure build-up with experimental data from literature for an Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor (EHC) cell Simulation has long been a core AVL competence,and our Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) business unit has solutions for a multitude of applications. They offer high-definition insights into the behavior and interactions of components, systems and entire vehicles. Our simulation solutions drive automotive efficiency, performance and innovation, while reducing development effort, costs and time-to-market. Used on their own, or combined with other methodologies and third-party tools, they support OEMs in the creation of market-leading products that meet global legislation. AVL CRUISE / AVL CRUISE M With more than 11,000 employees, AVL is the world's largest independent companyfor development, simulation and testing in the automotive industry, and in other sectors. Drawing on its pioneering spirit, the company provides concepts, solutions and methodologies to shape future mobility trends. AVL creates innovative and affordable technologies to effectively reduce CO2 by applying a multi-energy carrier strategy for all applications - from hybrid to battery electric and fuel cell technologies. The company supports customers throughout the entire development process from the ideation phase to serial production. To accelerate the vision of smart and connected mobility AVL has established competencies in the fields of ADAS, autonomous driving and digitalization. AVL's passion is innovation. Together with an international network of experts that extends over 26 countries and with 45 Tech- and Engineering Centers worldwide, AVL drives sustainable mobility trends for a greener future. In 2020, the company generated a turnover of 1.7 billion Euros, of which 12% are invested in R&D activities. 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  2. AVL Simulation Suite 2022 R1 | 35.9 Gb Product:AVL Simulation Suite Version:2022 R1 Build 153 Supported Architectures:x64 Website Home Page :www.avl.com Languages Supported:english System Requirements:Windows * Size:35.9 Gb The software developer Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) is pleased to announce the availability of AVL Simulation Suite 2022 R1 is a comprehensive solution that covers all aspects of powertrain concept, the e-motor, e-axle, power electronics, fuel cell, battery and control functions layout and integration. Release 2022 R1 We are pleased to announce the latest software releases for the following solutions: Quick and Easy Task Configuration If concrete insights are to be obtained when using simulation techniques, then all results and experimental references must correspond. This requires the simulation model parameters to be correctly configured, something that is both essential and simultaneously challenging. Apart from requiring a fundamental understanding of how each individual parameter affects the model, the fidelity of the model and the quality of experimental data also need to be high. Achieving all this can rapidly become very time consuming. This latest release of AVL CRUISE M, our system simulation tool, offers you a new wizard. The Fuel Cell Parameterization Wizard is specifically tailored for the fast and automated configuration of performance models based on input data from classic steady-state stack characterizations, i.e. polarization curves and/or transient measurement data, reducing your configuration effort from days to minutes. Figure 1: Fuel Cell Parameterization Wizard workflow Tracing Reactant Crossover The existing Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Model in CRUISE M now considers the crossover of reactants through the membrane, allowing you to treat the influences of activation losses on the cell voltage, especially at very low current densities, with even greater accuracy. This is achieved by fully accounting for the diffusion of the reactants and their reaction at the catalyst layers of the opposite electrode. The latter is driven by the partial pressure differences of hydrogen and oxygen in the anode and cathode gas channels. Figure 2: Reactant Crossover Model PEMFC Ionomer Degradation The existing models used to describe chemical degradation in the catalyst layer of PEM fuel cells have been supplemented in CRUISE M 2022 R1 with a model of the destruction of the ionomer, i.e., the degradation of the membrane serving as electrolyte between anode and cathode. The model considers the formation of peroxide at the catalyst layers, its transport through the membrane, and the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of iron cations and protons. The attack of the hydroxyl radicals on the ionomer is modelled by means of four reactions releasing carbon dioxide and hydrofluoric acid as gaseous reaction products. The stressors (inputs) for the ionomer degradation model are the local potential, membrane humidity, temperature and oxygen concentration, and its outputs comprise the time evolution of the ionomer components, the produced gas species, and the change of the membrane thickness and membrane equivalent weight. Figure 3: Membrane Degradation Model Simple Coupling of Various Degradation Models The latest version of the PEMFC Model in CRUISE M allows you to easily couple the Performance Model with the Mechanical and Chemical Degradation Models. This enables the easy determination of the effects of various stress factors such as catalyst voltage and temperature, hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, as well as catalyst relative humidity on, for example, exchange current density, membrane thickness and membrane equivalent weight. Based on the 1D discretization of the stack in longitudinal and channel-flow direction, the different aging behavior at the different stack positions can be simulated. Furthermore, the open model architecture allows you to easily incorporate custom degradation models and to benefit from the high-fidelity and fast stack model integrated in CRUISE M Figure 4: Closed Coupled Degradation and Performance Model Simulate Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers at System Level The new Solid Oxide Stack Model in CRUISE M provides the ability to perform comprehensive simulations of solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyzers on a system level. The 1D model is based on a multi-physics approach that combines gas-dynamic, thermal, chemical, electrochemical, and electrical aspects in one. Here, the electrochemical conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide follows the classical Butler-Volmer equation. Thereby, both are embedded in a thermodynamically consistent, reduced dimensionality approach. It is this consistency of the first principal equations that allows a smooth transition between fuel cell and electrolyzer operation driven only by reactant availability and current direction. If required, additional Arrhenius-type equations can be adopted for water gas shift, methane reforming and ammonia decomposition. The physical depth and ease-of-use is rounded off by a robust and real-time capable solver. The computational speed and robustness offered makes this new model the first choice for HiL-based applications. Figure 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Model Integrating the High-Pressure Tank The introduction of a high-pressure tank component allows studies to be performed on the actual tank volume, heat losses to the ambient, as well as charge and discharge through corresponding valves, including a relief device regulated by a dedicated control function. The entire tank model is composed of atomic CRUISE M components such as plenum, restriction, etc. that are placed in a masked subsystem. On the input top-level, all key model parameters are made available for an easy and straightforward access. If needed, the openness of the approach also allows drilldowns into the subsystem and the refinement of the component configuration according to the actual needs. The well-known Joule-Thomson effect is taken into account by activating the real-gas treatment in the gas composition settings. Figure 6: High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Model Ability to Calculate Realistic Aging Processes With the current release 2022 R1, AVL FIRE M offers you models for platinum dissolution and redeposition in the catalyst layer. This includes Ostwald Ripening, i.e., the effect of platinum dissolution on particle size, as well as for particle detachment and agglomeration. In addition, a Particle Size Distribution (PSD) Model is available that describes the change in catalyst particle sizes due to degradation effects. In combination with the already available ionomer degradation models, this allows you the detailed analysis of effects such as catalyst layer and membrane thinning, reduction of exchange current density, increase of diffusion resistance in the ionomer film and changes in the local current and heat sources. In addition, the novel sub-cycling numerical solution approach offered in this release provides you the possibility to efficiently simulate a large number of voltage or current cycles over a long duration, e.g. some 100 hours. Figure 7: Simulated electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) reduction Low Temperature PEM Electrolyzer The PEM fuel cell module in FIRE M 2022 R1 has been extended to enable the simulation of PEM electrolyzers with water being the fuel and with hydrogen and oxygen generated as reaction products. The model fully considers the transport of electrons, ions, gas species, and liquid water, as well as the thermal conditions in all relevant domains. The model also covers the hydrophilic nature of the porous media involved, the iridium or ruthenium properties of the anode catalyst, and the properties of sintered or woven titanium in the anode porous transport layer. In addition, convective water transport across the membrane due to pressure gradients is taken into account and the Eulerian multiphase approach is adopted to model the dispersed gas phase within the liquid phase continuum. Accordingly, the property database (PDB) has been extended with new default materials for the PEM electrolyzer application and the material parameter hydraulic permeability has been added for aqueous ionomer materials. Figure 8: Simulated PEM electrolyzer temperature The automotive industry is in a constant state of change and so too are your needs. To meet them, we at AVL are permanently working on the further development of our products and services to support you in completing your daily tasks. The latest release of our simulation solution for virtual function development, 2022 R1, includes OpenSCENARIO standard coverage by AVL Scenario Designer™ and multi-level co-simulation performance optimization in Model.CONNECT™. Tighter strategic integration with open source ADAS tools such as CARLA is continued with new integration features in both Model.CONNECT and AVL VSM™. Scenario Multi-Version and Portability Support in AVL Scenario Designer The new version of Scenario Designer introduces a framework for the parallel maintenance of multiple versions of the standards with backwards compatibility. Furthermore, relative referencing of the actors provides easier re-use of the maneuvers and events. Improved scene handling allows you to manage real road maps based on GPS data, map rotation, and elevation editing. Figure 1: AVL Scenario Designer Model.CONNECT Performance Optimization Improved performance is extremely important for the optimization of complex, real-time systems and for cloud computing applications such as SiL optimization and advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS). The new release of Model.CONNECT focuses on optimizing the co-simulation performance in multiple ways: - Improvement of the co-simulation of model-coupling element (such as FMUs) - Significant improvement for Simulink models with a large number of ports - Performance improvement of vector ports in the "ICOS Custom" component - Performance improvement of the DLL-Link interface as the basis for the majority of tool interfaces - Multi-threaded result output without negative influence on co-simulation performance - CPU load monitoring tool add-ons Figure 2: Model.CONNECT Performance Optimization Model.CONNECT Interfaces for ADAS The interface components for CARLA and VTD, the two most relevant environment simulation tools supported by Model.CONNECT, have been upgraded. This means that you can now use the latest software version of the tools as well as use some new features such as GPS ground truth sensors, sensor objects in VTD and vehicle integration in CARLA. Figure 3: New interfaces and upgrades Python Model Interface Component The Python programing language plays an important role in the development of applications in the field of ADAS and data processing. Model.CONNECT supports it with a dedicated interface component for user-specific Python code including optimized integration features and optimized co-simulation performance. FMI 3.0 Beta FMI is a de-facto standard for co-simulative model integration and is also supported by all major authoring tools. The development of the standard is carefully planned by the co-simulation community around Modelica Association. Model.CONNECT is among the first tools to support the recently released FMI 3.0 in a beta version. It also adds some new features such as 3D look-up tables, essential for the virtual calibration application via the built-in XCP interface. Figure 4: FMI 3.0-beta limited support Application Example: Virtual ADAS Function Validation in the Cloud Together with our colleagues from vehicle engineering, we have developed a solution for a large-scale virtual validation of autonomous driving functions such as the Automated Lane Keeping Assistant (ALKS). This was carried out using the cut-in and cut-out scenarios in a complex set-up in which both safety and comfort relevant features were evaluated. Both cloud execution and data analytics were fully automated on about 500 cores using Model.CONNECT as an integration platform, AVL VSM as the validated vehicle model, and AVL DRIVE as the online assessment tool for perceived safety and driving comfort. Deployment on 5000 cores would enable even high scalability and the execution of up to one million test cases per day. Figure 5: One million test cases per day Advanced AVL VSM Vehicle Model Integration with Environment Simulation The latest version of VSM - 2021 R1.3 - provides even better integration with external environment simulations: - Using Model.CONNECT, we have created a best-practice example that demonstrates the integration of VSM off-road vehicle physics in the open-source environment simulation CARLA. The unique soft-soil simulation capabilities of VSM and the 3D terrain models created in CARLA are a perfect match. This combination enables the virtual development of ADAS functions for off-road vehicles. - VSM 2021 R1.3 also contains an updated template for the creation of vehicle physics plugins. Using this template, it is possible to directly integrate VSM into arbitrary 3rd party environment simulations. A ready-to-run example demonstrates the integration with rFPro for autonomous driving. Figure 6: Off-Road - AVL VSM, CARLA, Unreal, Model.CONNECT AVL EXCITE for e-axle MFC-Based Model for Electric Motor Joints - Electro-Mechanical Coupling (EMC2) An electric motor joint model constructed using magnetic field computation (MFC) offers you the possibility to analyze the following within one model: - Low-frequency coupling phenomena of rotor dynamics and control system - Acoustic excitation of the stator teeth via surface-based linking nodes Both concentric and eccentric rotor behavior can be analyzed. In addition, the eccentric option offers the possibility to consider dynamic rotor eccentricity such as parallel offset, misalignment or bending. Slices are used to consider skewing and eccentricity. You have two options for model parameterization. This can be done with the help of the e-motor tool by simply specifying the geometry, material and electrical boundary conditions. The electromagnetic simulations for the model parameters are then set up, performed and post-processed in the background. Alternatively, you can use the "EMC Model Assistant" of the app library to import text file-based results from third-party tools. Figure 1: Line Description of flux linkage vs. stator direct-/quadrature-axis currents The result of the model parameterization is a new model entry in the e-motor model file (*.EMM) for use in AVL EXCITE for e-axle models. Figure 2: Surface Description for radial force of tooth 1 vs. rotor angle and quadrature current: surface Descriptions give an overview on saturation behavior or impact of slotting. The focus view shows you the stator tooth forces applied to the model slices. This provides you the opportunity to check the force application as well as the joint discretization in the axial direction. Rotor angular position and current excitation can be varied with sliders. Figure 3: Joint focus view with force components acting on model slices Additional Joints Now Available in AVL EXCITE for E-Axle To further enhance usability, the following joints have been migrated to the AVL Simulation Desktop (SDT) graphical user environment and are now available. - Dual Mass Flywheel Map-Based Joint - Hydraulic Torque Converter Map-Based Joint - Viscous Damper Joint Viscous Modal Damping A new feature of the EXCITE solver is the optional use of viscous modal damping for bodies. In this way, you can consider arbitrary frequency dependencies of the body damping by simply defining the damping versus frequency. With this, the EXCITE solver calculates the corresponding modal damping matrix. Figure 4: Example of typical Rayleigh damping characteristic (red) and user defined viscous modal damping (blue) Short-Time Fourier Transform Analysis With the new NVH Post-Processing app, you can easily and efficiently generate frequency Descriptions from transient time domain simulation results. For example, you can use the results of the ramp-up simulation of an internal combustion engine. The core functionality of this app is a frequency spectrum analysis of transient time signals using short-time Fourier transform (STFT). Figure 5: Transient time result - 2D Description results of a STFT analysis Noise Radiation - Input Power per Panel In acoustics the input power is a common quantity used to measure the power associated with mechanical vibrations. AVL EXCITE Acoustics now offers you the possibility of using user-defined panels to view the distribution of the total input power to the different subsystems. This gives you the data for each individual system separately. Figure 6: Multi local velocities, acoustic mesh and it's panels (top), input power results per user-defined panel (bottom) Data Exchange of Friction Loss Geometrical Regions for AVL FIRE M Thermal Simulation To predict the oil flow inside a gearbox, EXCITE for e-axle supports the export of the geometry and kinematic motion data for the AVL FIRE M embedded body method. As an enhancement, you can now also export geometric regions on gears and rolling bearings that are exposed to heat due to frictional losses. Figure 7: Creation of power loss region data through export of animation data from AVL EXCITE for e-axle AVL FIRE M Improvements of Electromagnetic 3D Simulation In order to achieve a faster and more reliable results, the 3D electromagnetic solver has been updated in terms of numerical robustness and convergence speed. The new approach was verified with simplified magnetostatic cases and with the simulation of a permanent magnet synchronous machine. Figure 8: Magnetic flux density in magnet, rotor and stator of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) New Solution App for E-Motor Cooling with Rotating Cooling Jets Efficient cooling systems are vital to ensure the durability and reliability of an electric motor. FIRE M now supports you with a fully automated workflow for oil spray cooling provided in the E-Motor Cooling App. After you have imported the e-motor CAD geometry into the system, the app takes over the next steps. The workflow includes everything from the preparation of the mesh to the setup, computation, and post-processing. Figure 9: E-machine cooling simulation method Due to their complexity, the simulation of spray cooled e-motors is a special challenge. Therefore, the app offers an automatic workflow that supports you in the thermal analysis of oil- and/or air-cooled systems in a typical stator spray, rotor spray or combined rotor and stator spray cooled e-motor. Figure 10: Thermal analysis simulation Wall Adhesion Force with Contact Angle and for Embedded Body Wall adhesion is an important physical phenomenon which determines the amount of fluid sticking to solid surfaces. This has a significant effect on the heat transfer calculation for applications such as e-motors, transmissions, and torque or power loss prediction in transmission applications. A wall adhesion phenomenon is now available for the embedded body approach used for the transmission simulation. Figure 11: Wall Adhesion Model Enhancements for the Embedded Body Energy Equation The implementation of the energy equation for embedded bodies has been significantly improved in FIRE M 2022 R1. Wall heat transfer functions are now included in the solution procedure. The structure of the energy solution has been extended to include the consideration of viscous heating effects on embedded solid surfaces, general temperature limits, and the solid time-step multi-application. As for the specific energy solution for embedded bodies, you now have the possibility to define the thermal resistance, the heat flows and the volumetric heat sources. This is possible for the whole body or only for a selection. Furthermore, you can determine whether the output for post-processing is in 2D or Figure 12: Embedded bodies analysis Consideration of Mode-Dependent Body Damping A new feature of the AVL EXCITE™ Power Unit Solver is the optional use of viscous modal damping for bodies. The advantage of this approach is that you can define an appropriate damping factor for each mode. With other approaches such as Rayleigh damping, this is only possible to a limited extent. This can be achieved in two ways by definition of the fraction of critical damping, either for each mode, or versus frequency. From here, the EXCITE solver then takes over. The solver calculates the corresponding viscous modal damping matrix based on the mass-normalized eigenvectors. This matrix is then applied as damping to the corresponding body of the EXCITE model. This new type of damping can of course be combined and augmented with all other types of damping supported by EXCITE. Figure 1: Example - typical Rayleigh damping characteristic (red) and user defined viscous modal damping (blue) Upgrade Your NVH Post-processing This new release of EXCITE introduces a new NVH post-processing app. Following the workflow in the app allows you to investigate acoustic phenomena easily and efficiently in transient time results, such as the simulation results of a run-up of an internal combustion engine. The core functionality of the app provides a frequency spectrum analysis of transient time signals using short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analysis. The 1D time signals can be provided in GIDAS or CSV file format. The app automatically locates available channels and offers them to you for selection. To prepare and customize the input data, it provides you with various options such as re-sampling to constant sample size, custom sub-interval definition, windowing options, and much more. The results are displayed as 2D Campbell Descriptions or 3D waterfall Descriptions. The "order analysis" function enables you to track a specific order over time/engine speed. Figure 2: Transient time result - 2D Description results of a STFT analysis Gain More Insights into Noise Radiation The input power is a common quantity used in acoustics to measure the power associated with mechanical vibrations. AVL EXCITE Acoustics now provides you the option to gain more insights into how the total input power is distributed over different subsystems and areas of a power unit via user-defined panels. Figure 3: Multi-local velocities, acoustic mesh and its panels (top), input power results per user-defined panel (bottom) Consider Lateral Gas Connections During Piston Ring Analysis The new version of AVL EXCITE Piston&Rings is capable to consider lateral gas ports on the top flanks of the first and second piston ring grooves for the optimization of the entire piston ring system. This new function allows you to analyze to what extent the sealing of the rings against the liner can be improved by such ports. In addition, you can investigate how they affect parameters such as friction, blow-by and lube oil consumption (LOC). Figure 4: Example - lateral gas ports on groove of piston top ring and effect on flow area at top flank Take Your Thermal Battery Analysis to the Next Level This release now enables you to optimize the thermal design of the battery not only for new cells but also for aged cells. Depending on the aging condition, the thermal behavior of the cell in the module can change. By setting the appropriate parameters, it is possible to study different aging scenarios. Figure 1: AVL FIRE M Model setup, aging parameter definition By integrating the Batemo cell model into the AVL FIRE M battery module, the well-known and accurate physical model is now also made available for 3D CFD simulations. The battery is represented by a single electrical node, while the temperature within the battery volume is solved in 3D. There are two ways to create the model, either by using the built-in Batemo cell library, containing a variety of validated cells, or by loading your own Batemo Cell, exclusively available to you. Figure 2: Temperature in a water-cooled 40 cell module: minimum / maximum / mean value vs. time (left); 3D temperature distribution @ 200 s (right) Figure 3: Temperature distribution in a 12 cell battery module (Left: New Cell, Right: Aged Cell) Figure 4: Temperature distribution of individual cells in battery module (left: new cell, right: aged cell) The simulation also enables different scenarios or initial conditions to be taken into account. If stationary or transient load profiles are examined, specific properties can be set for each cell. This allows the effects of the initial state of charge or the aging state to be made visible. But it is also possible to examine how production-related scattering affects the thermal behavior. Each cell can be specifically assigned its own properties. Analyze Batteries Electrochemically AVL CRUISE M now enables half-cell modelling to support experimental studies of battery cells with individual electrodes not affected by the counter electrode. Figure 5: Half-Cell Battery Model Lithium plating plays a crucial role in cell aging. Depending on the operating conditions, lithium ions can deposit in metallic form and this metallic lithium now dissolves back into the electrolyte. The electrochemical model in CRUISE M is under continuous development and the new release offers you a more complete modelling of plating. The plating and stripping processes are modeled and it is now possible to describe known phenomena, such as the voltage plateau formation during the relaxation/discharging after a charging event. Figure 6: Lithium plating and striping Solution: Battery Safety Analysis With the introduction of the Battery Thermal Runaway Solution App and the Measurement Fitting App in release 2021 R2, we have taken a big step towards improving the user experience. This update includes further improvements based on the feedback collected. Highlights of the Battery Thermal Runaway Solution App: - Additional trigger temperatures: Thermal propagation and venting events can be triggered from the solution app GUI - Introduction of the ability to select custom materials - Full setup of battery thermal runaway simulation is now available Minor usability improvements have been added to ensure a smooth workflow experience of the Measurement Fitting App. Figure 7: Trigger temperature settings for thermal runaway Figure 8: Automatic setup of 3D formulas Improve Energy Consumption Considerations and Your Parameter Studies To consider transmission losses, differential, planetary gear set, and double pinion gear set components have been extended. In addition to an improved quality of the energy consumption prediction, the extended models offer you a much higher model fidelity for parameter studies. You can either specify a constant base efficiency or the given efficiency is overruled by an enhanced efficiency model, in this case, the individual branch efficiencies and the power flow direction. Figure 1: Planetary components now consider transmission losses Model Losses in Gearbox, DCT, CVT and Transmission Component Efficiently The gearbox, DCT, CVT and single ratio transmission components are given four new input options to describe transmission losses: torque loss map, efficiency map, torque loss regular map or torque loss provided via data bus. The wide range of input options allows you to efficiently model losses tailored to the actual inputs available. The efficiency and torque loss map are spanned over temperature, gear (GB, DCT) or transmission ratio (CVT), speed and torque as inputs representing all possible different operating conditions. The most flexibility in modeling losses is provided by the data bus option. Here you can use any type of map or code to establish customized relationships between actual component operation and its losses. Figure 2: Transmission loss model extensions Use Multiple Data Sets in the Engine Parameterization Wizard The well-known Engine Parameterization Wizard now gives you the possibility to define multiple data sets for steady-state and transient measurement data. The different sets are distinguished by a newly introduced column holding the ID of the individual sets. In addition, the new "Measurement Data Selection" input page allows you to assign one or more data sets for the use in the various parameterization wizards (e.g. Pressure Drop Wizard, Turbocharger Wizard, etc.) and control functions. Figure 3: New "Measurement Data Selection" input page Speed-up Refrigerator Cycle Models Since simulating air conditioning or waste heat recovery systems normally is a computational challenge due to the phase change, this release of AVL CRUISE™ M contains an update. The optimized solver settings for this type of application, together with the multi-rate solver backend, increase the computational speed of a typical air conditioning example by a factor of four. This results in an average real-time factor of less than one on typical desktop hardware. Figure 4: Mobile air conditioning and waste heat recovery speed-up improvements Increase the Level of Automation for HiL Deployment Engine and aftertreatment models are typically set up separately in CRUISE M and later coupled in Model.CONNECT™ or on a HiL platform to simulate the coupled interaction of engine thermodynamics and exhaust gas aftertreatment. To facilitate this coupling, three new library components Mass Flow Boundary Export, System Boundary Export and Surrogate Aftertreatment are introduced. The ability to match all three components provides you with a consistent and least error-prone way to export engine and aftertreatment models from CRUISE M and to wire them elsewhere. Figure 5: Semi-automated HiL deployment Accelerate Your Model Setup with Sixteen New Control Components Setting up models has become even more efficient thanks to the new advanced components in the 2022 R1 releases. CRUISE M offers you three control component groups (Signal Source, Signal Control and Drive Control) with a total of 16 new components. Figure 6: Control components library You can use them as they are. Moreover, you can use the open code as an inspiring starting point for any kind of customization. Get External Access to Model Parameters CRUISE M now supports access to model parameters in exported models. You can select model parameters that should remain accessible in the model upfront. The exported model can be parameterized and run in any hosting environment according to the FMI standard. Figure 7: Exporting AVL CRUISE M model workflow and accessible parameters Replace Results of an Element with Those of Another Element of the Same Type The possibility to replace data shown in views with the data of another project, model, case set, or case has been extended. This new release enables the results of one model element to be replaced by those of another element of the same type. For example, if there is a chart containing results from the "wheel front left" element, the data can be replaced by that of the "wheel front right" element. Figure 8: Improved replace results dialog Make Aerodynamic Vehicle Simulations Simple with AVL FIRE M Aerodynamics play an important role in the design of road vehicles. Aerodynamic performance has a significant impact on fuel consumption and emissions levels. For example, at speeds above 80km/h, aerodynamic drag has a major impact on the range of the electric vehicle. To get reliable results, you usually need both a theoretical background and experience in the field of aerodynamics. The Vehicle Aerodynamics App launched with this release supports you with a guided workflow that leads you through the input of the necessary data and automatically creates the simulation setup. It includes all steps for embedded body simulation, setting boundary and initial conditions, and defining the output of the results. Of course, the app allows you to further fine-tune the final setup and make adjustments at any time. Figure 1: Vehicle Aerodynamics App Figure 2: Mean pressure coefficient predicted by the embedded body method (Exp. Hupertz et al. SAE Technical Paper 2021-01-0958) New model available: Heat Exchanger The Heat Exchanger Model for compact heat exchangers with louvered fins is now available in AVL FIRE M. It is a part of the porosity module and can be selected as the "advanced heat exchanger" model. The model works in a multi-domain framework and allows you to create any number of heat exchangers. The main fluid flow over the heat exchanger is thermally coupled with the flow of the coolant inside the exchanger and is calculated using the 1D network model. Hydrogen Combustion Ready With AVL FIRE M's well-known ECFM-3Z model you are now able to simulate hydrogen (H2) combustion. The model provides the same easy-to-build, easy-to-calibrate, fast, and robust solution for H2 combustion as for gasoline, diesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. It also continues to focus on low resource requirements, maintaining its superior speed compared to detailed chemical approaches. The standard ECFM-3Z model and the corresponding databases for laminar flame velocity and auto-ignition delay have been extended to also consider the pre- and post-flame effects as well as flame propagation during the combustion of pure hydrogen. Figure 1: AVL FIRE M simulation of a hydrogen ICE for a heavy-duty application The Use of Multiple Data Sets for Parametrization Within our system simulation tool AVL CRUISE M, the enhancements of the Engine Model Generator and the Engine Parameterization Wizard have received noteworthy improvements. The Engine Parameterization Wizard now allows you to define multiple datasets for steady-state and transient measurement data as a reference. The individual sets are given new identification numbers (ID) for immediate differentiation. In addition, one or more data sets can be provided on the "measurement data selection" input page for the usage in other parameterization wizards, such as the Pressure Drop Wizard, Turbocharger Wizard, and control functions. Model case sets are automatically created for each data set ID, allowing easy switching between operating modes defined by the different data sets. Figure 2: 'Measurement Data Selection' of the AVL CRUISE M Engine Parameterization Wizard Further extensions and enhancements offered with 2022 R1: AVL CRUISE M, Engine Thermodynamics - Additional enhancements of the Engine Parameterization Wizard: . Parameter for simulation end time . Control offset function for waste gate or variable turbine geometry position . New fueling function for engineering-enhanced gasoline cylinder - Gas Property Generator offers simplified fuel specification - Extensions of the Engineering-Enhanced Diesel Cylinder . Now up to 10 injection events . New cylinder de-activation model . Improved level-one emission models . Update regarding the impact of oxygenated fuel compositions . Dedicated model for fuel injection equipment . Improved post-injection model . New engine brake model (Jake model) - Extensions of the Crank-Angle Resolved Engineering-Enhanced Gasoline Cylinder . Reference rail pressure for friction model now provided as regular map of speed and break mean effective pressure . Now supporting multiple intake and exhaust valves - Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder now supports two-zone scavenging; multiple options available - Extended functionality to support the efficient generation and simulation of 1D gas dynamic networks . Hydraulic diameter and friction coefficient can be specified as function of pipe length . Pipe ends support supersonic flows . Now supporting variable compressor geometries . Additional data bus for 'direct injector' to control fuel evaporation . Cumulated data bus results made available for gas flow loss and mass flow boundary AVL CRUISE M, Aftertreatment - New library components are provided to simplify the coupling of separately generated engine and aftertreatment models - Reloading reaction models created using the User Coding Interface does not overwrite parameters - General gas species transport now fully linked to the material property database of the AVL Simulation Desktop - Filter library of reaction models of the engineering-enhanced aftertreatment components extended with dedicated models for DPF, cDPF, SCRF, GPF and cGPF - Catalyst library of reaction models of the engineering-enhanced aftertreatment components updated for TWC, SCR and ASC, DOC and NSC - Numerous enhancements to support efficient setup of aftertreatment models AVL FIRE M, IC Engine Performance and Emissions - Introduction of 'model-based meshing' philosophy; existing AVL FAME Poly and AVL FAME Hexa meshes can be used by multiple cases - AVL FAME M Engine and AVL FAME M Hexa settings can now be saved in a single file - AVL FAME M Poly now also uses data pool elements - Mass flow inlet boundary definition now allows prescribing a swirling motion - Majority of the 'Thermal Offline Mapping App' inputs are now configurable - Total cell number limit has been introduced for simulations using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Simulation has long been a core AVL competence,and our Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) business unit has solutions for a multitude of applications. They offer high-definition insights into the behavior and interactions of components, systems and entire vehicles. Our simulation solutions drive automotive efficiency, performance and innovation, while reducing development effort, costs and time-to-market. Used on their own, or combined with other methodologies and third-party tools, they support OEMs in the creation of market-leading products that meet global legislation. AVL CRUISE / AVL CRUISE M With more than 11,000 employees, AVL is the world's largest independent companyfor development, simulation and testing in the automotive industry, and in other sectors. Drawing on its pioneering spirit, the company provides concepts, solutions and methodologies to shape future mobility trends. AVL creates innovative and affordable technologies to effectively reduce CO2 by applying a multi-energy carrier strategy for all applications - from hybrid to battery electric and fuel cell technologies. The company supports customers throughout the entire development process from the ideation phase to serial production. To accelerate the vision of smart and connected mobility AVL has established competencies in the fields of ADAS, autonomous driving and digitalization. AVL's passion is innovation. Together with an international network of experts that extends over 26 countries and with 45 Tech- and Engineering Centers worldwide, AVL drives sustainable mobility trends for a greener future. In 2020, the company generated a turnover of 1.7 billion Euros, of which 12% are invested in R&D activities. 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  3. AVL Simulation Suite 2021 R2 | 31.0 Gb Product:AVL Simulation Suite Version:2021 R2 Build 115 Supported Architectures:x64 Website Home Page :www.avl.com Languages Supported:english System Requirements:Windows ** Size:31.0 Gb The software developer Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) is pleased to announce the availability of AVL Simulation Suite 2021 R2 is a comprehensive solution that covers all aspects of powertrain concept, the e-motor, e-axle, power electronics, fuel cell, battery and control functions layout and integration. Release 2021 R2 Updates and improvements to AVL's simulation solution The latest release of AVL's ICE Performance and Emissions Simulation solution - version 2021R2 - includes a range of enhancements that bring a variety of benefits to its users. About 18 months ago, we introduced you to our Engine Model Generator and Engine Parameterization Wizard. Since then, the two applications have been continuously developed and now offer you enormous time and cost savings through the combination of integrated expert know-how with a high degree of automation. Based on engine specification sheets, measurement data and user-defined default names for measurement positions, the Engine Model Generator and Engine Parameterization Wizard allow you to create thermodynamic engine models. Despite the minimal effort, these are highly accurate and suitable for HiL applications. With release 2021 R2, the Engine Parameterization Wizard is extended by a thermal model. This is used to simulate the temperature of the coolant and oil circuits and to take their influence on engine performance, fuel consumption and emissions into account. For the purpose of On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) Analysis, dedicated actuator channels are provided for the components intake and exhaust manifold, turbine outlet and intercooler thereby enabling leakage to be taken into account. To facilitate vehicle system simulation, the already available software ECU is extended by an idle speed controller. The components air cleaner, charge air cooler, high pressure EGR and EAS (exhaust gas aftertreatment system) are additionally equipped with dedicated pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics derived from validated engine models. This allows you to make accurate predictions over a wide range of operating conditions, which is a key criterium for high-quality models. Further highlights in 2021 R2 include: AVL CRUISE M, Engine Thermodynamics - Speed-up of Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder - Introduction of a Zero-Volume Node and an Advanced Junction Model to the gas path - Gas pipe extended to account for bending radius and changing wall temperature over pipe length AVL CRUISE M, Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment - Online modification of UCI modelled reaction parameters enabled - Engineering Enhanced Catalyst Models offered as new components in the standard CRUISE M EAS library - New real-time capable pressure drop model dedicated to passive regeneration and all sorts of catalytical conversions in catalytically supported particulate filters AVL FIRE M, IC Engine Performance and Emissions - FIRE M Engine Component Finder now capable to automatically detect up to three spark plugs - Enabling the use of custom Tabkin Knock databases - Improved setup of multi-cycle simulations using ECFM-3Z AVL FIRE, IC Engine Performance and Emissions - Tabkin FGM has been coupled with the FIRE Eulerian Flame Tracking Model - Tabkin table generation now available also for Windows systems Committed to our customers, always having the global automotive markets and trends as well as the current legal guidelines in mind, we at AVL are constantly working on the future development of our solutions, services and methods. With our second release 2021, we are again launching new highlights in the field of ICE Durability an NVH, which we would like to present to you here. Lubricated Sliding Contact Analysis Slider Bearing Internal Thermal Analysis Extended Thermal Boundary Condition Options To further improve the accuracy of the calculated local structure and oil temperatures, the possibilities to define initial and boundary conditions are extended. For the internal used boundary structure (ring) of each connected body, e.g. shell and journal, used by the approach, you can now define individual boundary conditions for the ring surfaces. These boundary conditions can be either of the type "Fixed temperature", "Fixed heat flux", "Heat transfer coefficient" or "Adiabatic". Input are temperature, heat flux or heat transfer coefficient (HTC) profiles. Temperature Equilibrium as Initialization Step In case structural heat up should not be calculated until the thermal stationary state is given, a new option is provided which allows you to obtain mechanical results that are unaffected by any temperature changes. The structure heat up is now treated as a thermal initialization step. The initialization phase ends either when thermal stationary conditions are converged out, or new - a predefined number of heat cycles - is reached. The thermal conditions reached are then used for a final standard dynamics calculation of a few engine cycles at stationary temperature conditions. Piston Ring Analysis - Additional Ring End Gap Designs Two new ring end gap designs have been introduced, the 'Stepped' and the 'Double Sealed' end gap. For both designs, the dynamic axial displacements of the ring ends are considered when using the 3D ring model, and for the double sealed design, the radial displacement is also taken into account. The gas flow coefficient for the ring end gap has been replaced by three separate gas flow coefficients, one for each throttle at the ring end gap. This allows you to adjust the model to even more demanding geometric designs that are not directly covered by the general designs. Valve Train Analysis Overhead Valve (OHV) Trainwith Swing Arm The OHV train templates available in AVL EXCITE Power Unit and AVL EXCITE Valve now support swing arm configuration in addition to the tappet configuration already available. The contact between lever and pushrod is considered by a ball/pen contact. If necessary, hydraulic lash adjuster insets can be used at the pushrod-side lever arm. Other configuration options, such as multi-valve actuation with and without bridges, are also possible with the new configuration. Interfaces AVL EXCITE Power Unit - Interface to Model.CONNECT The new "Model.CONNECT Element" component has been implemented in EXCITE Power Unit, providing an interface for co-simulations via AVL's neutral model integration and co-simulation platform that connects virtual and real components. This enables you to co-simulate EXCITE with a wide range of tools accessible through Model.CONNECT, e.g. AVL CRUISE M, MATLAB/Simulink and Python scripts. The EXCITE interface is similar to the already existing MATLAB and FMU interfaces with the main difference - EXCITE is just one client in the co-simulation, started and controlled by Model.CONNECT. With this release version, the interface supports applications that require motion quantities of bodies and sensors provided by EXCITE and receive forces and moments from tools connected via Model.CONNECT. The data is exchanged in EXCITE time steps for time-based simulations. Concept Analysis Torsional Vibration Damper Analysis Rubber TVD Durability - Geometry-Based Stiffness and Stress Calculation Using an additional geometry input, you can calculate the dynamic shear stress by AVL EXCITE Designer as a result of the torsional vibration analysis. Furthermore, the geometry can be used together with the rubber shear modulus to determine the torsional stiffness of the TVD. Three basic design variants are implemented: flat, cylindrical, or TVD with conical rubber layer. In case of strongly deviating designs, the moment of resistance to torsion and/or the gap dimensional factor can be adjusted manually. TVD Temperature Calculation - Option for Calibration The TVD temperature calculation App provides now two more result curves, outer surface and maximum temperature. In order to better consider the influence of real TVD design and surrounding air boundary conditions by the simplified model, as well as to achieve a higher accuracy, especially regarding amplitudes, the simulation results can be calibrated be measurement data. Based on the additional input of the measured temperature on the TVD outer surface for a certain engine speed, a temperature correction factor is determined. Hardly any other industry has been undergoing as much change in recent and coming years as the automotive market. In order to support you in the best possible way, we are constantly developing our solutions for you. Here you get an overview of the latest features of Release 2021 R1 in our Solution Area Transmission and E-Drive. AVL EXCITE for e-axle REXS Import Interface With the release 2021 R2 EXCITE provides you with the Reusable Engineering EXchange Standard (REXS) Import Interface. It defines an industry-wide standardized interface for a simple exchange of gearbox data. The Research Association for Drive Technology e. V. (FVA) has developed this format in close cooperation with its member companies. Their experience in the field of gearbox software ensures that the concepts developed are suitable for practical use in an industrial context. In REXS, the components of a gearbox are defined on the basis of common parameters. The REXS specification contains everything you need to define a gear unit model. Essentially, this includes the machine elements, their attributes and the relationships used to define the connection between the individual machine elements. Bevel Gears The already existing model for the representation of bevel gears in AVL EXCITE Power Unit is now also made available to you in EXCITE for e-axle with enhanced usability. To support bevel gears in EXCITE for e-axle, the following functionalities have been added: - New components are introduced: The new components include a new bevel gear body as a stand-alone body, as well as a new bevel gear subcomponent, e.g. for use on shafts, and the actual bevel gear joint. - Detailed 3D Visualization: There is a great variety of manufacturing/machining techniques for bevel gears, each resulting in specific shapes for the tooth trace along the width of the gears. In order to provide a reasonable and realistic 3D representation for all kinds of straight and spiral bevel gears, the most generic representation through spherical involutes has been applied. To complete the gear mesh, a generic root curve has been added. - Gear geometry input: The definition of bevel gear geometry has been improved following ISO 23509:2016, but also taking into account typical data sheet specifications for automotive and industrial applications. - Kinematic solution in the GUI: In the GUI-internal kinematic solution, the specific bevel gear geometries are now taken into account. This provides you with a kinematic animation, automatic repositioning as well as motion export for subsequent CFD oil-flow calculation. Elasto-Plastic Clutch Joint With this release, the elasto-plastic clutch joint (EPCL), already known from the AVL Workspace GUI, is migrated to EXCITE for e-axle. In order to easily connect the coupling joint to car bodies using the connection functionality, a new body sub-component, the friction plate, is introduced. In general, you can use the elasto-plastic clutch for modeling any type of friction clutches in a transmission or driveline, regardless if dry or wet. For wet (multiple-disk) clutches you are offered an additional option for calculating the drag torque. New e-axle App in the Transmission and E-Drive Solution Area One of the biggest new features of the 2021 R2 release is the new "e-axle" solution app that has been added to the AVL FIRE M One of the biggest new features of the 2021 R2 release is the new "e-axle" solution app that has been added to the AVL FIRE™ M. Using the app, you can now import surface and motion definitions of e-axle bodies from EXCITE for e-axle. The bodies are inserted into the FIRE M model as embedded bodies. AVL FIRE M Import Transmission Model from AVL EXCITE for e-axle By selecting the model file from which to export the EXCITE model, you import the surface models (.stl files) of transmission components and their motion over time. These objects are then used as embedded bodies directly in the FIRE M model. You can control the rest of the model, e.g. fluid definition, directly via the FIRE M GUI within a few minutes. Poor Quality Embedded Body Surface Meshes Supported Poor quality surface meshes for embedded bodies may contain gaps, overlaps, inner walls and inconsistently aligned surface parts. Nevertheless, you can use the solver will attempt to account for surface defects up to a certain size. In addition, FIRE M offers you the possibility to define this size yourself, or the solver will determine a suitable value. In general, this size should be chosen to be smaller than the geometric surface features to be resolved in the simulation. However, it should be larger than the surface defects. y+ Results Around Embedded Bodies As of the current version, you can visualize y+ values around embedded bodies in 3D results in both single-phase and multi-phase simulations. This is done by simply activating the corresponding 3D result. In addition, you can also examine the mean y+ values for each of the embedded bodies with 2D results. Automated Workflow for Simulations of E-Machine Cooling An automated simulation method for studying the cooling process of E-machines is an important step forward. This covers the entire workflow from mesh preparation, setup preparation, computation, and post-processing once you import an E-machine CAD geometry into the system. Starting with the Release 2021 R2 of FIRE M, this automated process is integrated using a solution app. Now you can simulate thermal analysis using oil and/or air-cooling system in a typical E-machine more efficiently and less time-consuming. In recent years, the global automotive landscape has undergone a major transformation and with it the needs of our customers and the end users. In order to meet your requirements and to provide you with the best possible support, we are constantly working on updating and improving all our products and services. In all our disciplines and areas of expertise, we have once again made a large number of updates for you. Below you will find some of the highlights of the latest release in our battery solution area. Solution: Battery Thermal Analysis The latest version of AVL FIRE M has been enhanced with the ability to use electrothermal battery models in electrically unresolved active layers. Each battery cell is now represented by an electrical node. Here, the current sources are prescribed in the electrically conducting parts touching the battery and the reaction heat source is evenly distributed in the battery cell volume. With this new approach, you no longer need special meshing approaches for battery cells and ultimately least to shorter turnaround times. This optimization allows you to perform fast and efficient simulation of battery modules and packs. Solution: Battery Layout The already existing model generators in AVL CRUISE M are extended with this release by a special model generator for battery modules and packs. For the creation of a high fidelity battery pack model the Batemo Pack Generator offers you a kind of configuration questionnaire. It takes into account all electrical and thermal aspects that are essential for you for concept phase studies and assessments. Since the entire generator process is supported by text and graphical outputs, you always receive immediate feedback on your chosen configuration. The process already starts on cell level. Here you can choose from a library of cylindrical, prismatic and pouch cells (Batemo Cell Library) or have a Batemo Custom Cell model. Futhermore, you have the possibility to choose from different options of air and water cooling concepts, either in reduced or more detailed form. The KPIs of cells, modules and packs are summarized for you and, if suitable, the actual CRUISE M model is automatically created. The main advantage of this new feature is that it allows you to independently set up a battery pack from scratch within 5 minutes. This makes it easier for you to perform battery concept studies without the hassle manual model creation. In addition, Batemo's extensive cell database allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the pack, to be carried out even without detailed knowledge of the properties of the respective cells. Solution: Battery Electrochemical Analysis AVL CRUISE M 2021 R2 offers you a new dedicated Batemo battery component.The component is part of the battery module introduced in the first release of this year. Using this new component, you can now build a cell, module or pack by upscaling. This maintains the accuracy of the Batemo cell models without having to specify complex details of the module or pack design. As with the battery module component, you can choose between the two modelling options "Batemo cell library" and "Batemo cell custom". Here you can draw from most common cells on the market (cylindrical, pouch and prismatic cells) from manufactures such as LG, Samsung, Panasonic, Murata and others. All models are "ready to go", which means they can be used by engineers who are not specialists in electrochemistry and battery material properties. Cell aging issues are addressed by a descriptive approach. This allows to parameterize different types of cell losses. The upscaling of the single cell model to the level of a module or pack can be configured by you according to the actual conditions. This flexibility is also provided for the thermal integration of the Batemo battery component into the CRUISE M cooling networks. The electrochemical battery model in CRUISE M has also been expanded in this release. - Thus, online analysis of battery health is now enabled by new output channels for SEI and Li-plating thickness, as well as analysis of the remaining capacity of the cell. - A concentration-dependent cation transference number is added to the property database. This allows an additional part of the migration effect, i.e. the drag of lithium ions with the ionic current is considered in the model. - The property database is enhanced with cation diffusion coefficients dependent on the lithium concentration in the electrolyte. Solution: Battery Thermal Analysis For easy setup of complex discretizations as well as efficient model setup, the updated Discretized Solid 3D component in CRUISE M now features UI support. This allows you to check (view, rotate, zoom, etc.) the structure and discretization of the 3D object. Furthermore, any selection of cells or cell surfaces can be defined to represent heat connections and measurement positions. The focus in this release of FIRE M has been placed on ease of use and efficiency in performing simulation tasks. Therefore, it comes to the biggest and most profound change in the workflow, since the introduction of FIRE M. These innovations allow you to define the entire simulation setup based on clean and discrete geometry. The lengthy meshing process is now the first step of the simulation and only after that the actual calculation is started. With the extension of the FAME M project tree and its preprocessing capabilities, you can now perform preprocessing directly in AVL FIRE Home. This allows you to set up the simulation from scratch without waiting for meshing. By selecting one of the options listed below when starting FIRE M, you enable targeted support for your model setup. 1. Use a Solution App FIRE M has a variety of solution apps tailored for specific applications, such as our Thermal Runaway Workflow App. The app allows you to set up complex Thermal Runaway simulations within minutes with best practice solver settings and meshing parameters. 2. Use a Custom App: By using the API, the application supports you in creating customized workflows and using them in a FIRE M model. 3. Use Generic Workflow: If you want to set up the simulation in the "traditional way", you can do it using the generic workflow. Flexibility has always been one of FIRE M's key strengths. All new features are built on the strengths of existing ones. FIRE M therefore also allows you to fall back on a generic, meshing-based setup approach at any time. Solution: Battery Safety Analysis This release introduces dedicated Solution apps for battery safety. A special focus has been placed on optimally supporting you in performing your tasks in connection with the thermal runaway of batteries. In particular, in deriving simulation inputs from measurement data and the generation of simulation models for thermal runaway. Thermal Runaway Workflow App:To save you valuable turnaround time when performing thermal runaway simulations, we have transferred our expert knowledge into an app. From now on, you will be supported by best practice mesh settings as well as automated solver setup with optimal parameters. The app allows you to reduce setup time from hours to minutes. Its ease of use makes it especially suitable for new users. Based on the groups that the app finds on the specified mesh, the materials are automatically assigned according to their names. You also have the option to adjust all the required materials yourself. Furthermore, there is a connection to the Property Database (PDB). This guarantees you access to all available materials. Thermal Runaway Measurement Fitting App:If you already have your abuse measurement data, you can now process it using this app. In addition to reading and processing the data, it creates the necessary input data for your simulation. All this happens within minutes and you always have full visual control. The latest release of AVL's Virtual Fuel Cell Development Solution - 2021 R2 - includes various new features and functionalities for fuel cell analysis at system and component level. The following release note provides a short summary of the main highlights of this release. You can find more specific details in the product release notes of AVL CRUISE M and AVL FIRE™ M. Fuel Cell System Layout and Integration Freezing and Defrosting The simulation-based development of PEM fuel cell cold-start strategies requires stack models that have the right physical depth to serve you as digital twin in office simulation and on virtual testbeds. Therefore, the reduced dimensionality PEM fuel cell model in CRUISE M is extended to handle liquid and frozen water in the gas diffusion layers. In addition to the existing membrane humidification model, you can now optionally activate models for liquid/frozen water formation. CRUISE M thus allows you to calculate the corresponding balance equations for water and thermal conditions of the stack. Furthermore, you can adjust the related formation rates and set the impact of liquid/frozen water on the fuel cell performance accordingly. Based on suitable parameterization, the model can be aligned with experimental data and is thus able to physically respond to different defrosting strategies. Peroxide and Platinum Band formation The chemical fuel cell degradation model in CRUISE M is complemented in the new release by a model for hydrogen peroxide formation in the catalyst layer and a model describing platinum band formation in the membrane. When dissolved, platinum ions diffuse from the catalyst on the cathode side into the membrane and come into contact with hydrogen originating from the anode side. The cations are reduced and form a crystallite platinum band, with the catalytic activity of the platinum band promoting the oxidation of hydrogen, the formation of water and electrical potential. In addition, hydrogen peroxide diffuses into the membrane, where its spatial concentration distribution can be interpreted as precursor for further radical formation and ionomer degradation. This implementation also gives you maximum access to the model parameters with their default values based on literature data. Joule-Thomson Effect The Joule-Thomson effect describes the fact that real gases change temperature when being compressed or expanded at isenthalpic conditions. This effect is specific to different gases and the heating/cooling depends on the applied pressure and temperature level. Hydrogen compressed at atmospheric pressure and 100K heats up while it cools down at 300K. While the Joule-Thomson effect can be neglected for air at atmospheric or moderate pressure levels, it must be taken into account to correctly describe the compression/expansion of hydrogen when filling / emptying high pressure gas tanks. CRUISE M 2021 R2 offers an enhanced gas property treatment accounting for the Joule-Thomson effect for the species hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen, etc. The real-gas properties are derived following the state equation by Peng-Robinson with the data compared to NIST REFPROP database. Fuel Cell 3D Multiphysics Analysis Platinum Particle Degradation Effects With AVL FIRE M 2021 R2 we now offer you models for platinum dissolution and redeposition. This includes Ostwald Ripening, i.e. the effect of platinum dissolution on particle size, as well as for particle detachment and agglomeration. In addition, a particle size distribution (PSD) is introduced for the catalyst particles that changes due to degradation effects. The newly added degradation models are based on an extended version of the carbon corrosion, carbon oxidation and platinum oxidation models and can be used in steady state and transient simulation modes. The new degradation models allow you to analyze in detail effects such as catalyst layer and membrane thinning, reduction of exchange current density, increase of diffusion resistance in the ionomer film and the changes of the local current and heat sources. Membrane Humidifier Water management in low temperature PEM fuel cells is one of the most important factors in avoiding performance degradation and improving cell reliability. For external humidification, the preferred technology is a membrane humidifier since there are no moving parts and no additional power supply is required. Membrane humidifiers use the properties of ionomer membranes to transfer heat and water from the exhaust gas to the fresh gas. The latest version of FIRE M offers you the possibility to simulate such membrane humidifiers in both tubular and planar design. Water Separator Liquid water in the gas media supply paths of PEM fuel cell systems can negatively impact overall performance and significantly affect the cathode air compressor and other BoP components. FIRE M 2021 R2 gives you all required advanced dispersed multiphase capabilities including a coupled thin liquid film model. This enables you detailed analysis and evaluation of water separation efficiency and pressure drop minimization in any complex water separator configurations connected to the fuel cell system. Workflow Automation An automated workflow for the simulation of a PEM fuel cell stack or even a single cell is provided to you by the current release of FIRE M. Starting from the CAD data, you are guided through the complete setup of the 3D multi-physics simulation tasks. Based on best practice, mesh settings are automatically set and can be further customized at your request. In addition, the complete simulation solver and physical model settings are initialized and the individual domains are set up based on predefined data sets. Finally, you can have an automatic report generated. AVL ISAC 6 Component Library With AVL CRUISE M 2021 R2, the AVL ISAC 6 testbed models are made available to you for office simulation. The release brings a new toolbox holding the ISAC 6 components Automated Gearbox, Driveline, Vehicle, Driver and Track, ready for the setup of drivetrain models assembled out of ISAC 6 and CRUISE M component. The behavior of ISAC 6 testbed models can be assessed in pure office simulation, ISAC 6 testbed models can be extended by CRUISE M components to describe more complex gearbox configurations, hybrid-electric or pure electric drivetrains. Mechanical Network Customization: FMU-Based Models Simulating connected mechanical systems is always a challenge. To simplify your model setup and ease the limitations, the latest version of CRUISE M offers you a new mechanical coupling component. When you load a custom model into the dedicated mechanical Functional Mockup Unit (FMU) component, you are precisely guided through the different modeling options and coupling variants. This ensures that you end up with a runnable model. Mechanical component models created in Dymola or Amesim, for example, and exported as model-exchange FMUs can now be seamlessly integrated into CRUISE M at system level. Driving Task: Braking, Thrusting, Coasting To model and simulate vehicle evaluation tasks like braking, coasting or thrusting (BCT) in a straightforward way, you are now offered new components. When you pull the BCT task from the component library, you now get the possibility to configure different powertrain settings. For example, you can decide whether braking is done with or without gear shifting, downshifting is done during the deceleration phase or whether you should opt for clutch pedal actuation at braking. Driving Task: Full Load Acceleration The further development of the Task Full Load Acceleration (FLA) component, which was released for the first time with CRUISE M 2019 R2, has simplified its use for you. With manual powertrains, you now have the option of controlling the clutch via a closing time or a launch speed range. For automated powertrains, you can brake for a defined time while pressing the accelerator pedal as well as ramping up engine speed before starting the vehicle. With the new open-loop option in the Driver component, it is possible to forward the request signal of the FLA component directly to the powertrain model. This allows you to configure task variations that you apply to a specific plant model directly from the Simulation Desktop (SDT) parameter backend. Crank Angle Cylinder: Calculation Speed-Up To increase the physical complexity of latest combustion models, the implementation of the cylinder code in CRUISE M has been revised. This brings you an acceleration of about 30% compared to the privious version. Gas Path: Advanced Junction Model This release also adds a new option to the gas flow junction element for modeling the pressure drop. To determine the geometric arrangement you have to specify the number of individual branches at the junction as well as the two angles of each branch. The additional visualization of the entered data allows you to check the arrangement simultaneously. Engine Parameterization Wizard - Cooling Function Model Another innovation relates to the engine parameterization wizard. This is extended by a simple thermal model. To simulate the temperature of the coolant and oil circuits, the wizard/generator adds a function to the model. This allows the thermal model to be provided as source code, thus enabling any type of customization. Start-Stop System A completely new component is the "start-stop system". In a driveline model, the Start-Stop System is wired between the cockpit and engine components and supports the control of engine operating conditions beyond the sole on-off signal provided by the cockpit. This "Start-Stop System" component is dedicated to support modeling of hybrid-electric vehicles as it simplifies the logic required to control the engine operation. Model Export: Specification of Tunable Parameters When exporting a CRUISE M model, the model is packed into an FMU. Furthermore, CRUISE M provides you with input (actuator) and output (sensor) channels. This allows you to monitor all kind of model states and to actuate a wide range of model parameters. With this version of CRUISE M, you can choose whether a model parameter should be exposed as FMU channel or as tunable parameter. This is advantageous for you when working with long lists of channels, many of which serve only as parameters. Scenario Export to and Import from MS Excel You can now export most scenarios to MS Excel and import them from MS Excel, both in the GUI and the SDT scripting API (using sdt.project.Scenario.export and sdt.project.ScenarioSet.import_scenario). The automotive industry is in a constant state of change and along with it your needs. To meet these needs, we at AVL are permanently working on the further development of our products and services to support you in fulfilling your daily tasks. The latest release of our simulation solution for virtual function development, 2021 R2, includes the extension of the usability, integration, and automation capabilities of AVL Scenario Designer. This is complemented by extended scripting and interfacing features of Model.CONNECT and an even tighter integration of open-source codes such as CARLA and esmini. With the release of the open-source project Eclipse OpenMCx, we show you the strategic direction to support a scalable scenario-based ADAS validation process in a modular development environment. AVL Scenario Designer Integration With AVL SCENIUS First of all we would like to introduce you to the newly released AVL ADAS test preparation suite AVL SCENIUS. Along with AVL Scenario Data Manager and AVL Test Case Generator, AVL Scenario Designer is a part of the SCENIUS suite. With a built-in interface to the scenario database, Scenario Designer offers you a seamless test preparation workflow from scenario creation and editing to the execution in the various test environments (office, lab, proving ground). The new version of AVL Scenario Designer brings you several usability improvements. Not only does it allow you to drag and drop catalogs, timelines, events and actors more easily. According to the received user feedback, additional warnings and a clearer display of element properties have also been introduced. This has resulted in a significant acceleration of the daily work steps. The complete list of new add-ons in the latest version can be found in the release notes for the product itself. Model.CONNECT Interfacing for ADAS and vECU SiL Applications The strategic orientation of the Model.CONNECT framework is to support the automated background execution of complex co-simulation systems in a consistent manner. This is done regardless of the environment from which the applications are controlled. With additional API and scripting support for model creation, parametrization, execution and optimization, Model.CONNECT supports you in the different applications. This ranges from virtual ADAS validation and virtual ECU calibration in HiL and SiL environment, such as the recent ones: - ADAS corner-case extractor with AVL CAMEO active DOE set-up - Virtual validation out of the AVL Test Case Generator with automatic scenario and actor's variation and road statistics based parametrization - ADAS test coverage optimization using different ontology-based, game-based and AI based optimization methodologies - Online calibration of virtual ECU in a SiL set-up from an AVL Smart Mobile Solution web front-end for electric vehicles - Online optimization of virtual ECU in a SiL set-up in the cloud for hybrid light duty vehicles - Deployment of the Model.CONNECT XCP-communication libraries to a RT system for online calibration of vECU in a HiL environment (with several improvement to the XCP functionalities) New Integration Components for AVL EXCITE and "Compiled Function" (C/C++) You can use the new Model.CONNECT component "Compiled Function" for adding control units or user defined models into the co-simulation system. This offers you numerous advantages such as: - Using input scalars, functions, and maps as parametrizable elements - Automatic unit conversion support - Separate initialization and integration code parts - Error messaging and debugging support - Improved performance and functionality Enriching AVL EXCITE Power Unit by adding new system components from AVL CRUISE M or new control components from "Compiled Function", Simulink, or python is now possible with a dedicated EXCITE interface component in Model.CONNECT (and vice versa). Model.CONNECT Integrates ADAS Open-Source CARLA, esmini, SUMO, ROS/ROS2, etc. The importance of open-source environment simulation tools is in providing a low-cost alternative to the commercial tool with a good coverage of many realistic use cases in development and validation (especially for the large-scale variation and optimization use-cases in the cloud). It also provids a great agility in development and involvement of different stakeholders. Model.CONNECT support SUMO and CARLA as the most popular open-source environment modelling tools and the integration of additional sensor and control modules using ROS/ROS2 libraries. There are several improvements added in Model.CONNECT for the latest version of CARLA with an addition of a direct interface to the Unreal Engine within, which enables insertion and configuration of scenario players and direct access to their properties. Model.CONNECT python interface provides a basic integration of esmini, the first open-source ASAM OpenSCENARIO player with 3D visualization and several interfacing options. This allows for the import of the driving scenarios created by AVL Scenario Designer and executing them in Model.CONNECT in the closed loop with other vehicle, sensor and ADAS functions models OpenMCx - a referent implementation of the FMI co-simulation standard In order to promote co-simulation methodology based upon standards, we contributed AVL's basic FMU-based co-simulation technology as an open source project Eclipse OpenMCx within Eclipse Mobility OpenADx working group. It is an open co-simulation engine using Modelica simulation standards, such as FMI and SSP, with aim to support advanced simulation applications in a heterogenous toolchain. For now, only the co-simulation Functional Mock-up Units (FMUs) are supported, while the configuration and parameterization of an OpenMCx co-simulation models and components is based on Modelica System-Structure and Parameterization (SSP) standard. OpenMCx enables its users to combine various simulation models from different vendors and sources, using standardized interfaces, into one co-simulation model and run it in a remote computing environment. The general idea of the co-simulation model is to provide a virtual validation framework for ADAS/AD function development but is not restricted to this use-case only. With its open and modular architecture, OpenMCx provides a framework for the users to implement interfaces for their own simulation models and integrate them into the co-simulation middleware. Besides that, OpenMCx allows for adopting the existing or adding new methods for data exchange, data analytics, job scheduling and execution management. More about the project and how to contribute can be found on ecplise.org: https://projects.eclipse.org/proposals/eclipse-openmcx https://github.com/eclipse/openmcx AVL VSM - Vehicle Model Factory and Integrated Control Units The latest version of AVL VSM - 2021 R1.1 - brings you two new major features: - Vehicle Model Factory - supports you in automated parameterization and validation of simulation models based on road measurements. This brings you a significant reduction in time and effort in creating validated digital twins for ADAS function development - New Integrated Control Units - for Traction Control (now available for all editions of AVL VSM) and Torque Vectoring Simulation has long been a core AVL competence,and our Advanced Simulation Technologies (AST) business unit has solutions for a multitude of applications. They offer high-definition insights into the behavior and interactions of components, systems and entire vehicles. Our simulation solutions drive automotive efficiency, performance and innovation, while reducing development effort, costs and time-to-market. Used on their own, or combined with other methodologies and third-party tools, they support OEMs in the creation of market-leading products that meet global legislation. AVL EXCITE With more than 11,000 employees, AVL is the world's largest independent companyfor development, simulation and testing in the automotive industry, and in other sectors. Drawing on its pioneering spirit, the company provides concepts, solutions and methodologies to shape future mobility trends. AVL creates innovative and affordable technologies to effectively reduce CO2 by applying a multi-energy carrier strategy for all applications - from hybrid to battery electric and fuel cell technologies. The company supports customers throughout the entire development process from the ideation phase to serial production. To accelerate the vision of smart and connected mobility AVL has established competencies in the fields of ADAS, autonomous driving and digitalization. AVL's passion is innovation. Together with an international network of experts that extends over 26 countries and with 45 Tech- and Engineering Centers worldwide, AVL drives sustainable mobility trends for a greener future. In 2020, the company generated a turnover of 1.7 billion Euros, of which 12% are invested in R&D activities. 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